Pharmaceutical Chemistry D.Pharm(1st Year) Question Solutions with PDF

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This Note was edited by: Shibaprasad Maity (Assistant Professor of Chemistry, RKDF University Ranchi) for Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 

All questions are printed in PDF question paper. You can download this PDF for free. This pdf question paper on pharmaceutical chemistry in the Diploma in Pharmacy course. All those questions are very important for the final year examinations. I hope those questions solution paper must be followed before your examination. Those question levels are obviously Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) approved syllabus questions. Please connect with me. I can help you how to solve those questions. Download this PDF link given below. Otherwise, you can read our article. 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1st-year Question Solution:


1. Define the term Sedative.

Answer: Sedatives are drugs that have a calming or tranquilizing effect on the central nervous system, often used to reduce anxiety, promote relaxation, or induce sleep.

2. Write the name of diuretics.

  Answer: Examples of diuretics include hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide, and spironolactone.

3. What do you mean by anti-hypertensive agents?

Answer: Anti-hypertensive agents are medications used to lower high blood pressure, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and other complications.

4. Define the term hypnotics.

 Answer: Hypnotics are drugs that induce sleep or promote drowsiness, commonly prescribed to treat insomnia or other sleep disorders.

5. What is anesthetics?

 Answer: Anesthetics are substances that induce a reversible loss of sensation, often used to prevent pain during medical procedures or surgery.

6. What do you mean by the anti-anginal agent?

Answer: Anti-anginal agents are medications used to relieve or prevent angina, a condition characterized by chest pain or discomfort due to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle.

7. What are the examples of cholinergic drugs?

Answer: Examples of cholinergic drugs include acetylcholine, donepezil, and pilocarpine.

8. What are the examples of antipsychotic agents?

Answer: Examples of antipsychotic agents include haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine.

9. What do you mean by anticonvulsant?

Answer: Anticonvulsants are medications used to prevent or control epileptic seizures by stabilizing the electrical activity in the brain.

10. Write the name of antidepressants.

Answer: Examples of antidepressants include fluoxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine.


1. Write the chemical name, uses, and different types of formulation and popular brands of thiopental sodium.


Thiopental Sodium:

Chemical Name of Thiopental sodium: Sodium 5-ethyl-5-(1-methyl butyl)-2-thiobarbiturate


Uses of Thiopental Sodium: 

Thiopental sodium is primarily used as an intravenous anesthetic agent, commonly known as "truth serum" or "thiopentone." It induces rapid and short-acting anesthesia for medical procedures or surgery. Additionally, it is sometimes used in the treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension (increased pressure inside the skull).

Formulations: Thiopental sodium is available as a white or off-white powder for reconstitution into injectable solutions for intravenous administration. It is typically supplied in vials or ampules containing the powder, which is then mixed with sterile water or another appropriate solvent before administration.

Popular Brands: Some popular brands of thiopental sodium include:

  • Pentothal
  • Thiopentone
  • Thionembutal

Thiopental sodium is a potent anesthetic agent with a rapid onset of action, making it valuable for inducing anesthesia quickly in emergency situations or for short surgical procedures. However, it should be used with caution due to its potential for respiratory depression and cardiovascular effects.

2.  Write the chemical name, uses, and different types of formulation and popular brands of Phenobarbital.



Chemical Name: 5-Ethyl-5-phenyl barbituric acid

Uses: Phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication with several uses:

  • It is primarily used as an anticonvulsant to treat seizures and epilepsy, both in adults and children.
  • It can also be utilized as a sedative-hypnotic agent to induce sleep, particularly in cases of insomnia.
  • Phenobarbital is occasionally prescribed to manage certain types of anxiety disorders.

Formulations:  Phenobarbital is available in various formulations, including:

  • Oral Tablets: These are the most common form of administration, typically taken by mouth with water.
  • Oral Elixir: A liquid form of the medication, which may be preferred for patients who have difficulty swallowing tablets.
  • Injectable Solution: Used in medical settings for emergency treatment of seizures or for patients unable to take oral medications.

Popular Brands: Some well-known brands of Phenobarbital include:

  • Luminal
  • Solfoton
  • Phenobarb

Phenobarbital is considered a long-acting barbiturate, meaning it has a prolonged duration of action compared to other barbiturates. Its effectiveness in controlling seizures has made it a widely used and important medication in the treatment of epilepsy. However, it also carries the risk of tolerance, dependence, and potential for abuse, so it should be used cautiously and under medical supervision.

3. Write the chemical name, uses, and different types of formulations and popular brands of diazepam.



Chemical Name: 7-Chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one

Uses: Diazepam is a benzodiazepine medication with various uses including treatment of anxiety disorders, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and seizures. It is also used as a premedication for medical procedures.

Formulations: Diazepam is available in oral tablets, oral solution, injectable solution, and rectal gel formulations.

Popular Brands: Valium, Diastat, Diazemuls.

4. Write the chemical name, uses, and different types of formulation and popular brands of propranolol.


Chemical Name: (RS)-1-(Isopropylamino)-3-(naphthalen-1-yloxy)propan-2-ol

Uses: Propranolol is a beta-blocker medication used to treat various conditions including hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), cardiac arrhythmias, tremors, and migraines. It is also used in the management of anxiety and stage fright.

Formulations: Propranolol is available in oral tablets, oral solutions, and injectable formulations.

Popular Brands: Inderal, InnoPran XL, Hemangeol.

5. Write the chemical name, uses, and different types of formulation and popular brands of atropine sulfate.


Atropine Sulphate:

Chemical Name: (RS)-2-[(3S,5R)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl]-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate sulfate (2:1) (salt)

Uses: Atropine sulfate is an anticholinergic medication used to dilate the pupils (mydriasis) during eye examinations, to treat bradycardia (slow heart rate), to reduce salivation and bronchial secretions during surgery, and as an antidote for certain types of poisoning.

Formulations: Atropine sulfate is available in injectable formulations for intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous administration.

Popular Brands: Atropen, Atropine Sulfate Injection, Atropisol.

6. Write the chemical name, uses, and different types of formulation and popular brands of fluoxetine.


Chemical Name: (RS)-N-Methyl-3-phenyl-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]propan-1-amine

Uses: Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

Formulations: Fluoxetine is available in oral capsules, oral tablets, and oral solution formulations.

Popular Brands: Prozac, Sarafem, Selfemra.


1. Explain Insulin in detail.



Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, specifically by beta cells located in the islets of Langerhans. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels in the body. When we consume food, especially carbohydrates, the body breaks down these carbohydrates into glucose, which enters the bloodstream. Elevated blood glucose levels trigger the release of insulin from the pancreas.

Functions of Insulin:

  • Glucose Regulation: Insulin facilitates the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, where it can be used as a source of energy or stored for later use.
  • Glycogen Synthesis: Insulin promotes the synthesis of glycogen, a storage form of glucose, in liver and muscle cells. This helps to lower blood glucose levels after eating.
  • Protein Synthesis: Insulin enhances protein synthesis by facilitating the uptake of amino acids into cells and promoting their incorporation into proteins.
  • Lipid Metabolism: Insulin promotes the storage of excess glucose as fat in adipose tissue and inhibits the breakdown of fats (lipolysis).

Types of Insulin:

  • Rapid-Acting Insulin: This type of insulin starts working within 15 minutes after injection and peaks in about 1 hour. It is typically taken just before meals to control postprandial (after-meal) blood sugar spikes.
  • Short-Acting Insulin: Also known as regular insulin, it starts working within 30 minutes to 1 hour and peaks in 2 to 3 hours. It is usually taken 30 minutes before meals to cover the rise in blood sugar that occurs after eating.
  • Intermediate-Acting Insulin: This type of insulin takes longer to start working (1 to 2 hours) but has a more prolonged duration of action (up to 12 to 18 hours). It is often used to provide basal insulin coverage throughout the day.
  • Long-Acting Insulin: Long-acting insulin provides a steady level of insulin over 24 hours, with little peak in activity. It is typically taken once daily to provide basal insulin coverage.

2. Write a note on antihypertensive agents.


Antihypertensive Agents

Antihypertensive agents are medications used to lower high blood pressure (hypertension), thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, stroke, and heart failure. These agents work through various mechanisms to relax blood vessels, decrease blood volume, or reduce the force of the heart's contractions. Some common classes of antihypertensive agents include:

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors: These medications block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, leading to vasodilation and reduced blood pressure.
  • Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs): ARBs work by blocking the action of angiotensin II at its receptors, resulting in vasodilation and decreased blood pressure.
  • Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs): CCBs inhibit the entry of calcium into smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, leading to relaxation of the arteries and decreased peripheral resistance.
  • Beta-Blockers: Beta-blockers reduce heart rate and cardiac output by blocking the effects of adrenaline on beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and blood vessels, resulting in lowered blood pressure.
  • Diuretics: Diuretics increase the excretion of sodium and water from the body, reducing blood volume and blood pressure.
  • Alpha-Blockers: Alpha-blockers block the action of adrenaline on alpha-adrenergic receptors, leading to the relaxation of blood vessels and decreased peripheral resistance.

3. Describe sedatives and hypnotics with their classification.


Sedatives and Hypnotics

Sedatives and hypnotics are drugs that depress the central nervous system, leading to a calming or sleep-inducing effect. While both classes of drugs share similarities, they are used for different purposes and have varying degrees of potency.

Sedatives: Sedatives are medications that induce a state of relaxation, calmness, and reduced anxiety without necessarily causing sleep. They are commonly used to alleviate symptoms of anxiety, agitation, or tension, and to promote relaxation before medical procedures.


Classification of Sedatives:

  • Benzodiazepines: Benzodiazepines are the most commonly prescribed sedatives, acting on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the brain to enhance their inhibitory effects, resulting in sedation and relaxation.
  • Barbiturates: Barbiturates are older sedative drugs that depress the central nervous system by enhancing the action of GABA receptors. They have a higher potential for addiction and overdose compared to benzodiazepines and are less commonly used today.
  • Non-Benzodiazepine Sedative-Hypnotics: This category includes medications such as zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta), which are used primarily to treat insomnia but may also have sedative effects at lower doses.
  • Hypnotics: Hypnotics are medications that induce sleep and are used specifically to treat insomnia or other sleep disorders.

Classification of Hypnotics:

  • Non-Benzodiazepine Hypnotics: These medications, such as zolpidem (Ambien) and zaleplon (Sonata), act on specific subtypes of the GABA receptors to promote sleep onset and maintenance.
  • Melatonin Receptor Agonists: Drugs like ramelteon (Rozerem) bind to and activate melatonin receptors in the brain, helping to regulate the sleep-wake cycle and improve sleep quality.
  • Antihistamines: Some over-the-counter medications like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) have sedative effects and are used as sleep aids, although they may not be as effective or appropriate for long-term use as prescription hypnotics.

4. Write a detailed note on cholinergic drugs.


Cholinergic Drugs

Cholinergic drugs are medications that mimic or enhance the effects of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that activates cholinergic receptors in the nervous system. These drugs can have various therapeutic effects depending on the specific receptors they target and the tissues they affect.


Types of Cholinergic Drugs:

Direct-Acting Cholinergic Agonists: These drugs directly stimulate cholinergic receptors, mimicking the action of acetylcholine. Examples include:

  • Bethanechol: Used to stimulate bladder contractions in the treatment of urinary retention.
  • Pilocarpine: Used to treat glaucoma by promoting the drainage of aqueous humor from the eye and to stimulate saliva production in cases of dry mouth.
  • Indirect-acting cholinergic Agonists (Cholinesterase Inhibitors): These drugs inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which breaks down acetylcholine, thereby increasing the concentration and duration of action of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptors. 
  • Examples include: Donepezil, Rivastigmine, and Galantamine: Used to improve cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia by increasing acetyl

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This Note was edited by: Shibaprasad Maity (Assistant Professor of Chemistry, RKDF University Ranchi) for Pharmaceutical Chemistry.